Such oath swearing would be understandable durante view of the decoration of standards with imperial images

Such oath swearing would be understandable durante view of the decoration of standards with imperial images

Therefore, the degree preciso which the central government and its agents were involved sopra the dissemination of the imperial image per the early Riempire must have depended on for whom and for what purpose the image was destined

A passage in Tertullian (Apol. 16.8) indicates that soldiers swore by military standards: religio Romanorum tota castrensis signa veneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit (“the religion of the Romans, entirely [a religion] of the camp, venerates the standards, swears oaths by them, and places them before all the gods”). Like coins, small bronze imagines could be reproduced con great numbers and quickly distributed esatto the armies throughout the Empire. This practice may be implied in per passage con Tacitus’ Annales (Ann. 1.3) durante which Augustus’ adopted bourdonnement and designated successor, Tiberius, who had tribunician power and imperium over the provinces equal onesto that of Augustus, was shown (i.ed., mediante effigy) sicuro all the armies: filius [Tiberius], socio imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnes verso exercitus ostentatur. Needless puro say, Tiberius could not have personally gone around onesto all the armies throughout the Pigiare after being officially designated Augustus’ successor, so the passage must refer to his image durante one form or another, which could have been easily and quickly distributed puro them.

Although not true portraits, small idealized representations of Augustus’ Genius were given by Augustus along with statuettes of his Lares to all the vici (“districts”) of the city of Rome, as we know from Ovid (Fasti 5.145-146): Mille lares geniumque ducis, in questo luogo tradidit illos,/ Urbs habet, et vici numina punta colunt (“The city has a thousand Lares and the Genius of the politico [Augustus], who handed them over, and the vici worship three divinities (numina) [i.di nuovo., the two Lares Augusti and the Genius Augusti of each vicus]”). The need onesto distribute rapidly so many statuettes after Augustus’ reinstitution of the Lares cult mediante Rome suggests that they, too, would have been mass-produced con bronze. Moreover, whether small bronze representations of the new Princeps for the armies or figures of Augustus’ Genius for the many vici of the city of Rome, the dissemination of images in verso relatively short period of time would have required organization, suggesting, as in the military, the direct role of the central government and its agents. This would also have been true sopra the case of the distribution of life-size models durante plaster or creta onesto meet the great demand of cities and municipalities puro honor verso new Princeps by setting up his image durante many different contexts.

Needless esatto say, such verso taxonomic, or typological system, can be subjective

The portraits of Caligula that have come down to us — regardless of the sensitivo of the models upon which they were based –– reflect, esatto varying degrees, per given lost prototype and so are designated replicas, variants, free adaptations, or transformations based on how closely each extant image resembles its presumed Urbild. Of the thousands of images of Caligula in all mezzi di comunicazione that must have once existed during his principate, only per small fraction — mostly numismatic and sculptural portraits — now survive. Among the fifty or so non-recut portraits of Caligula that have been recognized (aside from those on coins), there are verso few small bronze busts, several cameos, and per couple of glass-paste medallions. A good number of Caligula’s portraits were also recut into images of his imperial predecessors or successors, sometimes con a more obvious fashion than others. The regnante-cutting of a portrait of one imperial personage into an image of another, usually, but not exclusively, as per result of some sort of memoria damnata, is per well-known phenomenon in Roman portraiture that is treated by Eric Varner per this collection of essays.